Počet záznamů: 1  

Omega-3 fatty acids and adipose tissue biology

  1. 1. 0496193 - FGU-C 2019 RIV NL eng J - Článek v odborném periodiku
    Kuda, Ondřej - Rossmeisl, Martin - Kopecký, Jan
    Omega-3 fatty acids and adipose tissue biology.
    Molecular Aspects of Medicine. Roč. 64, Dec (2018), s. 147-160. ISSN 0098-2997
    Grant CEP: GA ČR(CZ) GA17-11027S; GA ČR(CZ) GA16-05151S; GA MŠk(CZ) LTAUSA17173
    Institucionální podpora: RVO:67985823
    Klíčová slova: adipocytes * immunometabolism * fish oil * lipid mediators * bioavailability * de novo lipogenesis
    Kód oboru RIV: FB - Endokrinologie, diabetologie, metabolizmus, výživa
    Obor OECD: Endocrinology and metabolism (including diabetes, hormones)
    Impakt faktor: 7.344, rok: 2017

    This review provides evidence for the importance of white and brown adipose tissue (i.e. WAT and BAT) function for the maintenance of healthy metabolic phenotype and its preservation in response to omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (omega-3 PUFA), namely in the context of diseased states linked to aberrant accumulation of body fat, systemic low-grade inflammation, dyslipidemia and insulin resistance. More specifically, the review deals with (i) the concept of immunometabolism, i.e. how adipose-resident immune cells and adipocytes affect each other and define the immune-metabolic interface, and (ii) the characteristic features of “healthy adipocytes” in WAT, which are relatively small fat cells endowed with a high capacity for mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, triacylglycerol/fatty acid (TAG/FA) cycling and de novo lipogenesis (DNL). The intrinsic metabolic features of WAT and their flexible regulations, reflecting the presence of “healthy adipocytes”, provide beneficial local and systemic effects, including (i) protection against in situ endoplasmic reticulum stress and related inflammatory response during activation of adipocyte lipolysis, (ii) prevention of ectopic fat accumulation and dyslipidemia caused by increased hepatic VLDL synthesis, as well as prevention of lipotoxic damage of insulin signaling in extra-adipose tissues, and also (iii) increased synthesis of anti-inflammatory and insulin-sensitizing lipid mediators with pro-resolving properties, including the branched fatty acid esters of hydroxy fatty acids (FAHFAs), also depending on the activity of DNL in WAT. The “healthy adipocytes” phenotype can be induced in WAT of obese mice in response to various stimuli including dietary omega-3 PUFA, especially when combined with moderate calorie restriction, and possibly also with other life style (e.g. physical activity) or pharmacological (e.g. thiazolidinediones) interventions. While omega-3 PUFA could exert beneficial systemic effects by improving immunometabolism of WAT without a concomitant induction of BAT, it is currently not clear whether the metabolic effects of the combined intervention using omega-3 PUFA and calorie restriction or thiazolidinediones depend also on the activation of BAT function and/or the induction of brite/beige adipocytes in WAT. It remains to be established why omega-3 PUFA intervention in type 2 diabetic subjects does not improve insulin sensitivity and glucose homeostasis despite inducing various anti-inflammatory mediators in WAT, including the recently discovered docosahexaenoyl esters of hydroxy linoleic acid, the lipokines from the FAHFA family, as well as several endocannabinoid-related anti-inflammatory lipids. To answer the question whether and to which extent omega-3 PUFA supplementation could promote the formation of “healthy adipocytes” in WAT of human subjects, namely in the obese insulin-resistant patients, represents a challenging task that is of great importance for the treatment of some serious non-communicable diseases.
    Trvalý link: http://hdl.handle.net/11104/0289017