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Contrasted evolutionary histories of two Toll-like receptors (Tlr4 and Tlr7) in wild rodents (MURINAE)

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    0396273 - ÚBO 2014 RIV GB eng J - Journal Article
    Fornůsková, Alena - Vinkler, M. - Pages, M. - Galan, M. - Jousselin, E. - Cerqueira, F. - Morand, S. - Charbonnel, N. - Bryja, Josef - Cosson, J.-F.
    Contrasted evolutionary histories of two Toll-like receptors (Tlr4 and Tlr7) in wild rodents (MURINAE).
    BMC Evolutionary Biology. Roč. 13, č. 194 (2013), s. 194. ISSN 1471-2148. E-ISSN 1471-2148
    R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/08/0640
    Institutional support: RVO:68081766
    Keywords : Arms race * Host-pathogen interaction * Pattern recognition receptors * Adaptive evolution * Pathogen-Associated Molecular Pattern (PAMP)
    Subject RIV: EG - Zoology
    Impact factor: 3.407, year: 2013

    In vertebrates, it has been demonstrated that genes encoding proteins involved in pathogen-recognition by adaptive immunity (e.g. MHC) are subject to intensive diversifying selection. On the other hand, the role and the type of selection processes shaping the evolution of innate-immunity genes are currently far less clear. In this study we analysed the natural variation and the evolutionary processes acting on genes involved in the innate-immunity recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). We sequenced genes encoding Toll-like receptor 4 (Tlr4, bacterial-sensing) and 7 (Tlr7, viral-sensing), across 23 species within the subfamily Murinae. The sequence analyses revealed that major parts of both Tlrs are evolving under strong purifying selection, likely due to functional constraints. Yet, also several signatures of positive selection have been found in both genes, with more intense signal in the bacterial-sensing Tlr4 than in the viral-sensing Tlr7. 92% and 100% of sites evolving under positive selection in Tlr4 and Tlr7, respectively, were located in the extracellular domain. Directly in the Ligand-Binding Region (LBR) of TLR4 we identified two rapidly evolving amino acid residues and one site under positive selection, all three likely involved in species-specific recognition of lipopolysaccharide of gram-negative bacteria. In contrast, all putative sites of LBRTLR7 involved in the detection of viral nucleic acids were highly conserved across rodents. Interspecific differences in the predicted 3D-structure of the LBR of both Tlrs were not related to phylogenetic history, while analyses of protein charges clearly discriminated Rattini and Murini clades. In consequence of the constraints given by the receptor protein function purifying selection has been a dominant force in evolution of Tlrs. Nevertheless, our results show that episodic diversifying parasite-mediated selection has shaped the present species-specific variability in rodent Tlrs.
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